Type: Article
Title: Trees in Sponge Cities—A Systematic Review of Trees as a Component of Blue-Green Infrastructure, Vegetation Engineering Principles, and Stormwater Management
Authors: Richter, Michael 
Heinemann, Kirya 
Meiser, Nadine 
Dickhaut, Wolfgang 
Issue Date: 23-Feb-2024
Keywords: urban trees; sponge city; water-sensitive urban design; blue-green infrastructure; passive irrigation systems
Abstract: 
Combining street trees with stormwater management measures can, in some circumstances, both increase tree vitality and reduce the risk of flooding by directing stormwater into tree pits. Using systematic review methods, this study aimed to provide an overview of the vegetation engineering systems being researched and applied that combine tree planting with urban stormwater management. We also sought to identify the positive as well as possible negative impacts on urban hydrology and tree health. It has been shown that diverting rainwater from impervious surfaces into tree pits has considerable potential for stormwater management and for improving tree health by reducing drought stress in urban trees. Worldwide approaches to optimizing tree pits for rainwater infiltration and water supply are promising. Different systems and substrate types have been tested, and street trees generally show good vitality, although systematic long-term monitoring of tree vitality has rarely been undertaken. There is still a need for research into temporary water storage for dry periods.
Subject Class (DDC): 710: Landschaftsgestaltung, Raumplanung
HCU-Faculty: Umweltgerechte Stadt- und Infrastrukturplanung 
Journal or Series Name: Water 
Volume: 16
Issue: 5
Publisher: MDPI
ISSN: 2073-4441
Publisher DOI: 10.3390/w16050655
URN (Citation Link): urn:nbn:de:gbv:1373-repos-12511
Directlink: https://repos.hcu-hamburg.de/handle/hcu/971
Language: English
Creative Commons License: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
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